After the detailed report on the founding of the EPA and its activities during the first decade, the principal events of the mature Association in the following decades are now summarized. At the end of the 1970s, the EPA had reached a membership of approximately 600 photochemists from some 24 countries. The membership dues for 1979 were SFr. 15. New members from new countries joined the Association, i.e., from Norway and The Soviet Union. It should be noted that from the beginning of the Association an annual Membership List was published. Statistics regarding the trend of individual memberships indicates the rapid increase from about 200 members from 20 countries in 1972 to a slightly fluctuating number of over 800 members from 32 countries in 1983 and over 900 from more than 40 countries in the following years. At the end of the 1970s, close contacts were established with the recently created Inter-American Photochemical Society (IAPS) and the Japanese Photochemistry Association (JPA).
In July 1978, the EPA Committees held a meeting in Leuven (VII IUPAC Symposium, Chairman N. J. Turro) and on that occasion Joussot-Dubien was confirmed as Chairman, F.C. De Schryver was appointed as Vice-Chairman and A. Gilbert and H.-D. Becker as Secretaries. The needs and possibilities of cooperation and joint action of the three Societies (EPA, IAPS and JPA) were examined, particularly the coordination of photochemistry meetings and the possible publication of a common journal. A. Lamola and a special committee of the IAPS, including representatives of the two sister Societies, established contacts with various publishers to discuss the issue.
The VIII IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry was held in Seefeld (Austria) in July 1980. The proposal to establish a journal patronized by the three Photochemistry Associations was discussed further. A proposal was made to work out an agreement with Elsevier Sequoia, publisher of the Journal of Photochemistry, to try to expand the scope of the existing (physically oriented) journal with the creation of a Part B, more concerned with organic, inorganic and synthetic photochemistry, thus encompassing all aspects of the field. The new Committees of the EPA were installed. The EC was composed of F. De Schryver (Chairman, Fig. 8), F. Scandola (vice-Chairman), H.-D. Becker and F. Wilkinson (Secretaries) and J. Wirz (Treasurer). H. J. Kuhn was nominated Special Secretary for Memberships.
Fig. 8. Frans De Schryver, fourth President (1980-1984) of the EPA
At the beginning of the second decade of life, the main problems faced by the Association were the publication of a new edition of the Directory of Photochemical Laboratories and the question of a common journal with the three Photochemistry Societies. B. Holmström from Göteborg accepted the task of preparing the up-dated Directory with the help of the EPA Secretary H.-D. Becker and the Editors of the Newsletter, G.R. De Maré and H.J. Kuhn. An expanded edition was published by Elsevier-Sequoia in 1981 as Supplement No. 2 of the Journal of Photochemistry. It dealt with some 400 laboratories and some 1500 researchers from 25 European and 9 non-European countries.
Instead, the publication of the new journal encountered several difficulties, i.e., the required guarantee of 500 subscriptions from the Societies as well as other problems that did not allow the initiative to be successful. At the end of 1980, the JPA decided not to proceed further for the moment and a little later the EPA also decided not to go ahead with the venture.
It is interesting to note that the increased contacts promoted by the Association led to the organization of several joint meetings of National EPA Sections such as those of the French-German Sections (Strasbourg, Nov. 1984), Italian-Swiss Sections (Como, 1987), Italian-French Sections (La Baume-les-Aix, Oct. 1989) as well as the 1st Mediterranean Meeting in Santa Tecla, Catania, in 1991, the Central European Photochemistry Conference (Krems, Austria, Oct.1993), the French-German meeting in Strasburg in 1994, the French-German-Swiss meeting (Konstanz, 1996), the German-Israeli Symposium on Photoinduced Processes (Mülheim, April 1997) and the German-Austrian-Italian meeting (Badgastein, Austria, March 1998), the latter being successfully followed by other editions.
During this period the EPA continued to run Summer Schools for young photochemists. The one in 1982 was in Königswinter (Germany), organized by H.-D. Scharf (Fig. 9), followed by those in Nordwijk, The Netherlands (J. Cornelisse and J. Lugtenburg, Sept. 1986) and in Spiez, Switzerland (A.M. Braun, 1989). The latter was the first one organized in cooperation with the Inter-American and Japanese Photochemical Societies and dedicated to interdisciplinary research (Fig. 10). Following Summer Schools were in Rimini, Italy (F. Barigelletti, 1992), in Noordwijk, The Netherlands (J. Verhoeven, 1998) and in Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands (F. Brouwer and L. De Cola, summer 2003). The organization of the EPA Summer Schools is presently continuing at 2-3 year intervals.
Fig. 9. Participants in the 4th EPA Summer School, Königswinter, Germany, Sept. 1982
From: EPA-NL n. 16, p. 29
Fig. 10. The organizing staff of the 6th EPA Summer School 1989 on “Light and Pharmaceutical Chemistry” in Spiez, Switzerland, August 1989. From the left: T. Oppenländer, A. M. Braun, H.-J. Hansen, K. Tokumaru and B. Frei
The General Council meetings continued to be held on the occasion of the IUPAC Symposia on Photochemistry. The 1982 GC was held in Pau, France (IX Symposium). The EC was re-confirmed with only the replacement of H.-D. Becker with H. Dürr. In 1984 the GC was held in Interlaken (X IUPAC Symposium) where the question of a Society Journal was raised once more. The new EC was elected: F. Wilkinson (Chairman, Fig. 11), F. Scandola (Vice-Chairman), H. Dürr and H. Bouas-Laurent (Secretaries) and J. Wirz (Treasurer). The report of the 1983 EPA financial transactions was approved with a total credit of ca. SFr. 61,500 with an increasing trend (it will be over SFr. 80,000 in 1987). In this period the Association numbered more than 800 members.
Fig. 11. Frank Wilkinson, 1984-1988 President of the EPA
The 1986 meeting of the GC was in Lisbon (XI IUPAC Symposium) (Fig.12). The members of the EC that had finished their second term were replaced by V. Balzani (Vice-Chairman), K.H. Grellmann (Secretary) and E. Haselbach (Treasurer). The GC devoted a large part of their discussion to the question of an International Journal of Photochemistry to be supported by the three societies, analysing the arguments in favour and against managing a Journal. It was re-confirmed that the Journal should be considered an expansion (Part II) of one of the existing journals published by Pergamon (Photochemistry and Photobiology) and Elsevier (Journal of Photochemistry). The GC voted to proceed further with negotiations.
Fig. 12. Musical event at the XI IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry (Lisbon, July 1986). The picture shows the local hosts (Sebastiao Formosinho and Silvia Costa) and Frank Wilkinson (1984-1988 EPA Chairman) assisting a group of fado singers at the Conference banquet
From: EPA-NL n. 28, p. 55
The 1988 GC was held during the XII IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry in Bologna. This was really a special occasion because the Symposium intended to celebrate the 900th anniversary (1088-1988) of the Bologna University (Fig. 13) and the genius figure of Giacomo Ciamician.
From: Archives of the Ciamician Institute of Bologna University
Fig. 13. Left: Sigillum Magnum, the silver symbol of Bologna University and right: Chairman V. Balzani opens the Congress.
On that occasion, in a suggestive traditional ceremony, the University of Bologna bestowed the “Laurea ad Honorem” on Sir George Porter (Fig. 14). Moreover, the Ciamician medal, a prize offered by the Gruppo Italiano di Fotochimica (EPA section) to a scientist who had distinguished himself for his pioneering work in the field of photochemistry, was awarded to Albert Weller (Fig. 15) and the Sigillum Magnum, the silver symbol of the old University, offered to the most renowned visitors, was given to Jean-Marie Lehn.
Fig. 14. Ceremony of the “laurea ad honorem” bestowed on Sir George Porter at the XII IUPAC Symposium. From the left: two Faculty Members (V. Balzani and S. Focardi), the Rector of the Bologna University (Prof. F. Roversi-Monaco) and Sir George
From: Archives of the Ciamician Institute of Bologna University
Fig. 15. Albert Weller receives the Ciamician medal from Prof. V. Carassiti (University of Ferrara)
From: EPA-NL n. 34, p. 54
In addition, F. Wilkinson presented the “Porter Medal Fund” established by the ex-students and other research collaborators of Sir George. The first founding medal, which will be given biennially to scientists who have made the greatest recent contributions to photochemistry, was awarded to Sir George himself. The following medals were awarded to Michael Kasha, USA (1990)(Fig. 16), Kenichi Honda, Japan (1992) (Fig. 17), Nicholas Turro, USA (1994) (Fig. 18), J.C.”Tito” Scaiano, Canada (1995), Noboru Mataga, Japan (1996), Frans de Schryver, Belgium (1998), Vincenzo Balzani, Italy (2000), Josef Michl, USA (2002), Graham R.Fleming, USA (2004), Howard E. Zimmerman, USA and Hiroshi Masuhara, Japan (2006) and David Phillips, UK (2010).
Fig. 16. Presentation of the Porter Medal to Michael Kasha by Lord Porter at the XIII International Symposium on Photochemistry, Warwick, UK, July 1990
From: EPA-NL n. 40. p. 27
Fig. 17. Porter Medal award to Prof. Honda, Leuven July 1992. From the left: Lord Porter, Kenichi Honda and Frank Wilkinson
From: EPA-NL n. 46, p. 21
Fig. 18. Nick Turro, Porter Lecturer at the XV IUPAC Symposium (Praha, July 1994). From the left: Lord Porter, the medal and Nick Turro
From: EPA-NL n. 52, p. 83
In this connection, also the Havinga Medal has to be mentioned, given by the Stichting Havinga Fonds, established in Netherland in 1979 in honour of Prof. E. Havinga (Fig. 19) on the occasion of his retirement (awarded in 1990 to K. Schaffner and in 1991 to M. A. Fox).
Fig. 19. Prof. Egbert Havinga
The GC in Bologna elected the new EC: V. Balzani (Chairman, Fig. 20), R.S. Davidson (Vice-Chairman), K.H. Grellmann, E. Poquet and T. Vidoczy (Secretaries), while E. Haselbach was confirmed as Treasurer. An amendment to article 9a of the EPA Statutes was approved, establishing that “only countries with 30 members or more can have two members on the Standing Committee”. The GC discussed important issues about the question of the common journal. After four years of negotiations, an agreement was approved among the three sister Societies (EPA, IAPS and JPA), the publisher (Pergamon Press) and the American Society of Photobiology to institute a two-year trial programme to expand Photochemistry and Photobiology in order to include photochemical papers of types that were not currently published in the journal. A successful trial period, dependent on the number of papers submitted and new subscriptions, would have led to a final decision about the division of the Journal into two parts, one corresponding to the current journal and the other containing photochemical papers largely unrelated to photobiology. This would lead the three Societies to run directly a separate section on Photochemistry and Photobiology with obvious scientific and financial advantages. The agreement was signed in November 1988.
Fig. 20. Prof. Vincenzo Balzani, 1988-1992 President of the EPA and recipient of the Porter Medal 2000
Up to the end of the decade, there had been scarce participation of Eastern European countries in the Association. This started to improve also thanks to the presence of a Hungarian photochemist (T. Vidoczy) on the EC. In the summer 1989, a national group was constituted in the GDR and officially joined the EPA and a few months later the Academy of Science of the USSR decided to found a Soviet branch chaired by Prof. M.G. Kuzmin. The organization of national groups also started in other Eastern European countries. In that period a competition was launched among the EPA members to propose an appropriate logo for the EPA symbolizing its aims and activities.
Important international meetings were sponsored by the EPA in the 1980s, such as the first European Postgraduate Symposium on Photochemistry (London, April 1984, R.S. Davidson, Fig. 21), the International Meeting to honour the outstanding EPA member Lord George Porter, Nobel Laureate 1967 (London, July 1986, co-organizers D. Phillips and F. Wilkinson) and the Euchem Conference on Photoisomerism and rotamerism in organic molecules (Assisi, July 1988, U. Mazzucato).
Fig. 21. Left: Participants of the European Postgraduate Symposium on Photochemistry, London, April 1984; right: the organizer staff, from the left: T. J. Kemp, J. D. Coyle, F. De Schryver, D. Goodwin and R. S. Davidson
The series of the Postgraduate Symposia continued in 1986 in Mülheim, Germany (H. Rau and M. Demuth), in 1988 in Jadwisin, Warsaw, Poland (St. Paszyc and J Herbich), in 1995 in Canterbury, Kent, UK (S. Davidson), and in 1997 in Mülheim again (M. Demuth).
In 1985 the Swiss EPA-Section founded the Grammaticakis-Neumann Prize (sponsored by Dr. Grammatikakis in honour of Dr. Neumann, a specialist in political sciences at the University of Vienna) for younger researchers of university and industrial institutions who had successfully contributed to the domain of photochemistry. The first prize was awarded in 1985 to A. Harriman (GB) and I. Gould (USA). Following winners were M. Demuth (Germany, 1987), W. Rettig (Germany, 1990, Fig. 22), V. Ramamurthy (USA, 1991), M. van der Auweraer (Belgium, 1992), P.F. Aramendìa (Argentina, 1994), L. De Cola (Italy, 1995), M.B. Zimmt (USA, 1996), A.G. Griesbeck (Germany, 1997), W. Nau (Germany, 1999), E. Vauthey (Switzerland, 1999), D. Guldi (USA, 2000), N. Armaroli (Italy, 2001), J. Hofkens (Belgium, 2003), D. Bassani (France, 2005), T. Fiebig (USA) and A. Wagenknecht (Germany, 2006), A. Credi (Italy, 2007), A. Heckel (Germany, 2008) and S. Jayarman (USA, 2009). In other years (e.g. 2002 and 2004) no prize was awarded because no suitable candidate was proposed.
Fig. 22. Wolfgang Rettig receives the Grammaticakis-Neumann prize for 1990 from E. Haselbach
From: EPA-NL n. 40, p. 24
The 1990 meeting of the GC was held in July in Warwick (XIII IUPAC Symposium). V. Balzani (Chaiman) and Vidoczy (Secretary) were re-elected, while the new members of the EC were J. Verhoeven (Vice-Chairman), E. Migirdicyan (Secretary) and A. Braun (Treasurer). H.J. Kuhn was appointed as Managing Editor of the Newsletter and the Editorial Board was expanded with new members of both Western and Eastern Europe.
After three rounds of the competition for an EPA logo, a call for the EPA members to vote on the many sketches proposed from different countries was announced in March 1990. Since the not so many ballots received were in favour of different proposals, it was decided to forward the best suggestion to an artist in order to create the final version. U. Mazzucato asked for the help of designer Mr. F. Latini in Perugia. His proposal was presented at the GC of 1992 in Leuven and received such a full acclaim that it was decided that it should be the basis for the final printed version of the EPA logo (Fig. 23) which was put into action by A. Braun and H.-J. Kuhn (a detailed story of the logo by J.W. Verhoeven can be found in issue n.49 (November 1993) of the Newsletter.
After a period of standstill in assigning the Förster memorial lecture, in 1991 the EPA agreed that “Fachgruppe Photochemie der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker” together with “Deutsche Bunsengesellschaft für Physikalische Chemie“ should organize the granting procedure in the future. The 1991 Lecture was awarded to F.P. Schäfer (Göttingen), that of 1997 to D. Möbius (Göttingen) and to F. De Schryver (Leuven) in 1999/2000.
The 1992 meeting of the GC was held in July in Leuven (XIV IUPAC Symposium). J. Verhoeven was appointed as new Chairman (Fig. 24), J. Wirz as Vice-Chairman, D. Döpp and M.G. Kuzmin as Secretaries. E. Migirdicyan was re-confirmed as Secretary and A. Braun as Treasurer. The financial situation was considered stable, with 75% of the income from membership fees (SFr. 25 per member) used to cover the increasing cost of the Newsletter. The most important problem in that period was to expand, as much as possible, collaboration between Western and Eastern laboratories. It was decided to sponsor some photochemical meetings, such as those organized in 1993, to honour Sidney Leach (Paris) and Nikola Getoff (Vienna). Even if the EPA in general did not financially support the organization of scientific events, the request of sponsorship/patronage to international and national meetings was encouraged. As bad news, it was announced that the agreement for the common journal “Photochemistry and Photobiology” between Pergamon and the three Societies had failed because the number of subscribers and submitted papers were too few.
Fig. 24. Jan Verhoeven, Chairman 1992-1996
Reproduced from PPS 9 (2010): 883
The next meeting of the GC, SC and EC was held in July 1994 in Praha (XV IUPAC Symposium). The EC was unanimously re-elected with the only replacement being that of E. Migirdicyan (after her second term) by G. Favaro (Perugia) as Secretary. As for the financial situation, the membership fee was increased to SFr. 30 (SFr. 20 for students and retired members). As in the previous biennium, a sum of SFr. 4000 was set aside to offer travel grants for young photochemists. It was announced that the EPA would continue to be an organization associated with IUPAC. After the XIX Membership List of the EPA, issued in November 1994, it was decided to make the list available on the EPA website and up-date it biennially. T. Vidoczy’s proposal to set up an EPA electronic database in his Institution in Budapest (Photochemistry on the Internet) to help exchange of information was approved by the GC.
In this period the Association started to sponsor two biennial series of important meetings, such as the International Conference on Solar Energy and Applied Photochemistry (SOLAR), held biennially in Egypt (Fig. 25) and the International Symposium on Photochromism (ISOP, Fig. 26).
Fig. 25. Participants of the 4th Solar Conference, Cairo, Jan. 1997
Fig. 26. Participants of the ISOP 96, the 2nd International Symposium on Photochromism, Clearwater Beach, Florida, Sept. 1996
From: EPA-NL n. 58, p. 120
The next GC meeting was in Finland (XVI IUPAC Symposium, Helsinki, July 1996). The new EC was elected: J. Wirz (Chairman, Fig. 27), J.-P. Pete (Vice-chairman), S. Canonica (Treasurer), G. Favaro, A. Vlcek, jr., I. Soboleva (Secretaires). The balance, which had remained constant at about SFr.70,000, was unanimously approved. In line with the earlier initiative of T. Vidoczy in Budapest, a new EPA homepage was developed at the Chairman’s laboratory in Basel. In 1997, G. Grabner in Vienna compiled and continually up-dated a comprehensive database of the literature dealing with photochemistry and related fields. A link to that site could be found on the EPA homepage. At the 1998 GC in Sitges, Barcelona, the EC in charge was re-confirmed.
Fig. 27. Jacob Wirz, Chairman of the EPA, 1996-2000
In 1999 H.J. Kuhn, after a splendid period of service as Managing Editor of the NL for many years, asked to be replaced and J. Kossanyi was appointed to this task.
The next GC meeting was held in Dresden in 2000 (XVIII IUPAC Symposium). The Chairman proposed some changes to the EPA Statutes. In particular it was established that one of the rights and functions of the GC is “to elect biennially the members of the new EC from the candidates proposed by the SC and the EC”. The new EC was elected: J. Waluk (Poland) as Chairman (Fig. 28), W. Rettig (Germany) as Vice-chairman, H. Lemmetyinen (Finland) and S. Monti (Italy) as Secretaires. S. Canonica was re-confirmed as Treasurer with H. Görner and W. Horspool as auditors. On that occasion, the new Chairman again took up the discussion on the subject of a new journal and planned to nominate a task force for further contacts with publishers and the sister Societies. It has to be noted in this respect that in that period, the European Society for Photobiology (ESP) had planned to start a journal that would have replaced the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, Part B and that the ESP contacted the EPA with the offer to join their initiative, becoming co-owners and co-editors.
Fig. 28. Jacek Waluk, the 2000-2004 Chairman of the EPA, 2000-2004
The new Chairman asked the EPA members to express their opinion on this proposal. It is also interesting to recall that the Chairman, considering the close links of the photochemists with relative areas (physics, spectroscopy, biology, etc.), also made some comments about the current idea that the term “Photoscience” could be more attractive and useful than “Photochemistry”. At Dresden, two refreshing historical treatises on photochemistry in the 20th century and on the IUPAC Symposia on Photochemistry were presented by Heinz Roth and Kurt Schaffner, respectively.
A successful Graduate Student Symposium was organized on February 2000 in Fribourg by T. Bally. In that occasion the 1999 Grammatikakis-Neumann prize was given to Werner Nau (Univ. Basel) and Eric Vauthey (Univ. Fribourg) (Fig. 29).
Fig. 29. Werner Nau (Univ. Basel, center) and Eric Vauthey (Univ. Fribourg, right) receive the Grammatikakis-Neumann prize 1999 from Jacques Moser (chairman of the awarding Committee, left)
From: EPA-NL n. 68, p. 25